File permissions when developing with Docker

• 4 min read

File permissions can be a little hard to get right when working with Docker due to how the host machine and containers are mapped to one another. During development, it can be aggravating to encounter the following issues:

  • The host cannot read/write files created by the container
  • The container cannot read/write files belonging to the host

These problems have cropped up for me in different ways, but deploying Laravel apps to a Docker container have been consistently frustrating due to it needing write access to files and directories. I'll be using this as my main example for the rest of this post.

The problem

In a typical Laravel application, logs and cache files are created and stored in the storage directory. These file operations are performed by the PHP process (either through FPM or Apache). This will usually be ran as the www-data system user.

Usually when we develop a PHP application with Docker, we'll want to mount the application directory as a volume. Unfortunately this means that storage ends up being owned by the host user. This is usually seen as user 1000 within the container, but can vary depending on your OS. Within the container, these two users have no concept of one another, let alone have permission to change each other's files.

Here are some solutions to get around this.

Add container user to host user group

Thinking about this purely in terms of the Linux permission model, it should be obvious we can simply add the www-data user to our host user's group and add group write permissions to our storage directory.

We can do this by adding something like this to our Dockerfile:

FROM php:7.3-apache

# Add `www-data` to group `appuser`
RUN addgroup --gid 1000 appuser; \
  adduser --uid 1000 --gid 1000 --disabled-password appuser; \
  adduser www-data appuser;

Within the container, user 1000 can only be referenced by user ID (UID) and does not have an associated group ID (GID). We need to create an actual user in the container and assign it with the host user's UID and GID. In our example, we've created a user called appuser, and a corresponding appuser group. Both have a UID and GID matching the host user/group.

It's worth noting again that the UID and GID may differ depending on your OS and user set up. You can typically check this by running the following commands on your host:

echo $UID
echo $GID

This should allow our app to write into storage, but we'll need to be sure to check that the directory has group write access too:

COPY ./src /var/www/html

# Add group write access to `storage`
RUN chmod -R 760 /var/www/html/storage

Map container user to host

One problem with the previous solution is that new files written by the container's service user will also be owned by that user. This means that the host user won't have write access and you'll need to use sudo to modify them outside of the container.

This can be a bit of a pain if you need to change these files often. A workaround for this is to map the container's system user directly to the host:

FROM php:7.3-apache

# Set www-data to have UID 1000
RUN usermod -u 1000 www-data;

This sets www-data to have a UID of 1000, which corresponds to our host user. Now whenever www-data creates files within the container, they are also owned by the host user too.

Change the container user

By default many Docker containers will start as root, leaving consumers to decide if they want to start a container as a different user. From a security perspective, starting containers as root can introduce the risk of privilege escalation, so it's usually a good practice to explicitly set it to a non-root user.

In our case, it's desirable to change the user just so that we can correctly set user file permissions. We can start the container as our host user by running the following:

docker run --user 1000:1000 your-container

Or setting it in our docker-compose.yml:

    user: '1000:1000'

This approach is more flexible than the previous solutions as we don't need to explicitly set the user inside of the Dockerfile at build time. This allows us to more easily change the user at run time e.g. with environment variables.

Unfortunately this solution doesn't quite work in our Apache-based PHP example as it needs to start as root to run properly. Thankfully we can override this by setting the user with the APACHE_RUN_USER and APACHE_RUN_GROUP environment variables (see documentation). We can set these in docker-compose.yml:

      APACHE_RUN_USER: '#1000'
      APACHE_RUN_GROUP: '#1000'

Avoid writing files to shared volumes

Although it's possible to wrangle file permissions to work correctly, I would say that it's actually better to not share files between the host/container at all. Containers try to provide isolated, disposable environments and mounting shared volumes are counter-intuitive to this. As we've seen, we need to leak host details like UIDs and GIDs through to the container to make everything work correctly.

Ideally we should adjust our application so that it:

  • Only has read access to volume(s) belonging to the host
  • Writes logs to stdout
  • Writes cache/temporary files to an ephemeral location in the container
  • Uses non-shared volumes for writing files that need durability (databases, uploaded files, etc)