Field testing the new Vue CLI 3

• 11 min read

16th January 2021: Vue CLI has reached v4, and some of this post may no longer apply. I haven't worked on a Vue project in ~2 years now, so I may re-visit this the next time I have the opportunity to do so.

Recently I had the opportunity to start a new project with Vue, presenting a great opportunity to get back up-to-date with the Vue ecosystem (my last Vue project was last year).

Luckily (or unluckily) for me, the major 3.0 update for the official Vue CLI was just around the corner so I decided to kickstart the project with the latest RC release to create a clear direction for the project's future infrastructure and tooling. Having spent a few weeks getting to grips with it, the official 3.0 release has just been released and I feel like it's a good time to share my experiences/thoughts with it so far.

What's new?

Previously, the Vue CLI 2 architecture involved the use of 'templates'. These templates were essentially boilerplate projects that would be copied into the user's project and then placeholders in the project files would be replaced with any required input. Nothing too unconventional here. Many projects that auto-generate boilerplate scaffolding use this approach e.g. JHipster.

Vue CLI 3 turns things on its head and ditches the templates in favour of plugins and a convention over configuration approach. The main motivations being:

  • Users will have to modify the project templates to suit their use cases. This leads them to immediately diverge from the template (in React land, this would be when a user 'ejects' from create-react-app. Consequently, it is usually not easy for users to upgrade to future versions of the template once they have started customizing it.
  • Templates are not easily extensible and new functionality cannot be applied in an easily automated, ad-hoc way when requirements change in the future.
  • Templates still expose a lot of configuration complexity and this may be particularly intimidating for new users.

By using plugins, the new CLI hopes to keep users running along the beaten path and keep an upgrade path open for the future. This theoretically means that more users can 'come along for the ride' and spend less time maintaining project configurations.

Starting out with Vue CLI should be as simple as:

vue create my-project

If users want to add some new functionality, it should be as simple as applying a new plugin (which bootstraps and generates its own dependencies as required).

So far so good. Let's dig a little deeper.

Initial thoughts

Things looked promising initially. The CLI itself was fairly pleasant to use, with a nice number of out-of-the-box options to choose from and a straightforward set of steps to run through.

Initially I tried out two setups. The first was a fairly 'default' setup using Babel, Vue Router, Vuex, Sass, ESLint (with Airbnb) and Jest for testing. The second was more unconventional by swapping out Babel and ESLint with Typescript and TSLint.

The Typescript setup was a little more interesting as there are still a few limitations when using Typescript in Vue. From a tooling perspective, the main issue is the lack of TSLint support for Vue files in Jetbrains IDEs which means that you won't get on-the-fly feedback from the linter. A bit of a dealbreaker for me unfortunately.

On the other hand, I couldn't spot any major issues with using the Babel setup - everything works as expected (including the linting). This is still probably the 'best' way of configuring a Vue project currently. It doesn't seem like Typescript is quite ready for prime time in a Vue environment (hopefully this will change soon).

Interestingly, you can actually configure a hybrid setup that transpiles Typescript using the Babel v7 pre-releases instead of the Typescript compiler. Personally, I'm not very keen on using this until a stable Babel v7 release though.

Digging a little deeper into the generated project, the CLI generates a package.json with some default scripts:

"serve": "vue-cli-service serve",
"build": "vue-cli-service build",
"lint": "vue-cli-service lint",
"test:unit": "vue-cli-service test:unit"

From this, it appears that vue-cli-service is trying to abstract over all facets of development tooling. This is presumably to make it is easier to adopt the new plugin architecture, allowing any tools to be preconfigured in the Vue-specific way. On the other hand, it seems like you will have to be willing to buy into vue-cli-service to get all of its benefits.

Teething problems

Whilst initial project setup was pretty painless, a few issues quickly arose from use. Whilst mostly not dealbreaking, these were worth documenting further.

Running Jest in Jetbrains IDEs

Running Jest tests from the IntelliJ GUI would fail, whilst running them from the CLI would work fine. The problem here it that the Vue CLI generates the project with a Babel config using a preset called @vue/babel-preset-app. It turns out that this preset is specific to Vue CLI and is intended to be ran via the vue-cli-service. From the readme, you can find the following:

Note: this preset is meant to be used exclusively in projects created via Vue CLI and does not consider external use cases.

Jest tries to pre-process any files through Babel before running tests and this can be problematic if it is not configured correctly. As the preset only works properly when running via vue-cli-service, it will not bootstrap Babel correctly. This leads to the frustrating 'unexpected token' errors that people familiar with both tools may have come across.

This will probably be a frequent problem for new users as there will be plenty of people that also run Jest through a Jetbrains IDE. I can understand that the Vue team has to cater for everyone, but I'm still a bit disappointed that they haven't factored in Jetbrains users.

The current design of the preset is not very re-usable for Vue users who don't use Vue CLI. Unfortunately, it doesn't look like there is an appetite from the Vue team to decouple the dependency on Vue CLI. Consequently, I would say there's currently a gap in the market for a more explicitly configurable, dependency-free Vue preset.

To workaround the problem, we can manually set the environment variable flags that the Vue preset relies on. We can explicitly define these in babel.config.js:

if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'test') {
  process.env.VUE_CLI_BABEL_TARGET_NODE = true;

module.exports = {
  presets: [

This feels a bit icky, but it's currently the easiest way of making sure Jest always works with the Vue CLI generated project. Personally, I think it's questionable that they even rely on environment variables in the first place for a Babel preset. Most presets typically have the sense to let you configure them through their public API.

Dependency hell

Closely related to the previous Jest issue, there was another Babel/Jest issue that involved the NPM dependencies resolving incorrectly leading to tests failing. Again, I was faced with the 'unexpected token' errors mentioned earlier.

This only really manifested on occasions where the NPM dependencies changed e.g. when updating the project to the latest version of Vue CLI . Part of the issue seemed to stem from having Jest explicitly defined in the package.json dependencies (normally it is an implicit dependency of the @vue/cli-plugin-unit-jest package). The reason for this is to allow IntelliJ to run Jest tests from the GUI (you need it explicitly defined in package.json).

After some further investigation, it appeared that this was partly due to NPM messing up its dependency resolution and importing Babel v6 instead of v7 when pre-processing test files. The solution to this ended up being to do the following:

  1. Run npm cache verify.
  2. Remove the package-lock.json and node_modules directory.
  3. Re-run npm install.

It was interesting to observe NPM getting the dependency resolution really wrong, but it was quite frustrating that these issues mostly stemmed from relying on Babel v7. Again, v7 is still in pre-release, so it's somewhat reckless to see Vue CLI using it as a key dependency. I can appreciate that we all want v7 as soon as possible, but we should still be a little more cautious about living on the bleeding edge.

Opinionated environment variables

Vue CLI takes an opinionated approach to environment variables by automatically loading .env files that are defined in the project root. Different .env files can be chosen by providing a different 'mode' parameter when running any of the vue-cli-service commands.

This can be pretty useful when starting out a project, but it doesn't currently consider that you may want to define .env files in a different fashion. For example, I prefer to use the dotenv-webpack plugin as it allows you to validate your .env file against a reference .env.example file. This helps you make sure that your .env files have all the required variables (pretty useful).

As Vue CLI also loads in .env files, you have to put in a bit of thought into how these two loading methods will interact with one another. Vue CLI's handling is a little more complex than dotenv-webpack, as you have to consider how the 'mode' parameter is set (it will automatically default to different modes depending on the task being ran). On the other hand, dotenv-webpack does not make any such assumptions and allows you to configure it how you think it should be configured for your project.

Just another Webpack wrapper?

After spending some time with the Vue CLI and working through the initial teething problems, I couldn't help but ponder if the abstraction was really worth it. Is there really a need to wrap Webpack? What is the problem with just using Webpack?

The Javascript community already has a reputation for re-inventing the wheel and it certainly feels like Vue CLI is another great example of this mentality. An additional API on top of Webpack seems counterproductive to encouraging the community to consolidate on a standard set of tools. If it uses Webpack under-the-hood, why not just use Webpack?

In my opinion, Webpack itself is not terrible to use. Every version has progressively improved on the developer experience and it feels fairly intuitive after getting familiar with the workflow.

Is documentation the problem? Having been around for the horrible documentation of the Webpack v1 days this seems unlikely. In general, Webpack documentation is now fairly high quality and is certainly a much better source of truth than it has been.

Is configuration complexity the problem? Vue CLI attempts to reduce configuration complexity, however the API surface area is still fairly broad and has plenty of possible options meaning that any large Vue project can still grow to become fairly complex. The difference here will be that that you have to potentially learn two APIs instead of one to achieve the same thing. I can also foresee the Vue CLI API inhibiting the ability to do things you would be able to do with vanilla Webpack.

At this point, I'm questioning if Vue CLI's opinionated convention over configuration approach is really worth the trouble long term. From my experience, convention over configuration is great - until it's not. You then end up spending unnecessary amounts of time investigating and implementing hacks to workaround specific use cases. Although there is a higher upfront cost to explicit configuration, having the flexibility to grow your solution to perfectly fit your needs can be very powerful.

A potentially hidden gem

To try and offer and escape hatch and provide more control over the Webpack configuration, Vue CLI employs an interesting project called webpack-chain. This allows you to mutate the Webpack configuration with a fairly pleasant chaining API. The example from the docs looks like the following:

module.exports = {
  chainWebpack: (config) => {
      .tap((options) => {
        // modify options...
        return options;

At first I was a little skeptical of the utility of this, but having looked at the documentation a little more, I'm quite impressed by the API. In fact, it's powerful enough that under-the-hood, Vue CLI actually uses it for all of its core Webpack configuration.

To me, it seems like webpack-chain is more of a step in the right direction towards solving the 'Webpack problem'. The API encourages composition and re-use, whereas monolithic Webpack configurations generally don't. I have in the past relied on webpack-merge to enable code sharing, but this has not been perfect as it relies on having an understanding of how configurations will be merged together (this is not always a simple task with large configurations).

It feels to me that webpack-chain could potentially avoid merging messiness, however, I can also see that it could probably be used to paint yourself into a corner as well. Regardless, it seems to me like there is a place at the table for webpack-chain and it's worth keeping an eye on it.

Perhaps it would be good to see a standard set of packages that use webpack-chain to provide the basic components of most Webpack configurations in a generic way (not opinionated like Vue CLI). The user could then compose them together in their Webpack configurations and add any finishing touches as required.

I intend to check out webpack-chain more in the future


Vue CLI 3 introduces some interesting new tooling ideas and features - most importantly, a plugin-based architecture. This aims to provide users with a flexible set of packages that can be updated and maintained more easily. Whilst this is a nice goal, it still remains to be seen if this will pan out the way that the Vue team are envisaging.

Unfortunately, there are a bunch of teething problems that certain users will feel more than others depending on their workflow and choice of tools. I feel Jetbrains IDE users get the short straw here and I hope that the Vue team consider our use-cases more in the future.

There is also the elephant in the room. Is the solution to our Webpack tooling woes an opinionated wrapper around Webpack? I personally don't feel that this is a perfect solution and will suffer from edge cases where user requirements are quite specific.

Finally, to round up, should you use Vue CLI 3?

On the whole, I think the pros do outweigh the cons and the answer will typically be yes. I think the Vue team have managed to achieve most of their key objectives. It provides a consistent, beginner friendly starting point for Vue projects that can get you up and running fast. However, I am somewhat sceptical of how it will scale for larger projects and if it will live up to the claim of 'not needing to eject'. We will see!

For people that are already comfortable with Webpack and using it successfully in their projects, I don't think there's a major reason to move over to Vue CLI. It will probably be easier to stick with your current tooling setup, however, Vue CLI will no doubt be useful for new projects where you don't need complete control over everything.