How to add vanilla Emotion server-side rendering to Gatsby

• 3 min read

On the whole, having used Emotion on a few of my last projects, I'm quite happy with it compared to other CSS-in-JS libraries. I like that they offer multiple APIs, allowing you flexibility in how you want to style your components. Personally, I prefer using the plain css API as the others seem to have major drawbacks (one for another post).

Emotion pushes you to style elements your elements with their css prop, instead of className. There are some advantages from doing this - you get out of the box server-side rendering (SSR) and theming. Unfortunately, there's also some big disadvantages, in particular the super awkward ClassNames component. Colin McDonnell explores a few of the issues in much greater detail in his post Why you shouldn't use @emotion/core.

Thankfully, you can avoid the css prop entirely by using the vanilla @emotion/css package. The main caveat here is that you have to manually setup server-side rendering. This can be a little tricky with Gatsby as it's not obvious how to do this from the documentation. If you look closely, none of it actually describes how to integrate with vanilla @emotion/css. What is the correct way?

Inject server-side rendered styles

We need a way to inject Emotion's generated styles into the server-side rendered markup. Thankfully, Gatsby exposes a few APIs that we can use.

I've found that the replaceRenderer API was the most concise way of doing this. Be aware that it may have its own caveats depending on if you're using plugins that rely on it too.

In gatsby-ssr.js, we can add something like the following:

import { cache } from '@emotion/css';
import createEmotionServer from '@emotion/server/create-instance';
import { renderToString } from 'react-dom/server';

export const replaceRenderer = ({ bodyComponent, setHeadComponents }) => {
  const { extractCritical } = createEmotionServer(cache);
  const { css, ids } = extractCritical(renderToString(bodyComponent));

      data-emotion={`css ${ids.join(' ')}`}
      dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ __html: css }}

This essentially renders our Gatsby app into a string on the server, before Emotion's extractCritical is used to pull out all of the various classes (in the ids variable) and styles (in the css variable). Using Gatsby's setHeadComponents, we can inject all of this into our HTML's head as a style element.

Note that in the style element's data-emotion attribute, I've used a key of css as this is the default used by @emotion/css. If you want to change it, you should check out the documentation on Custom Instances. It's pretty unlikely you'll need this besides for a specific set of use-cases though.

Finishing up

Now that our styles have been injected, we just need to check to check that everything is working correctly. Build and serve your Gatsby app:

gatsby build
gatsby serve

Finally, disable JavaScript in your browser and visit your app URL. If everything is correct, you should be able to see that everything is styled correctly. This means that the server-side rendered styles have been injected properly. Without them the app would be unstyled as Emotion cannot run client-side with JavaScript disabled.

That's it! Enjoy using vanilla Emotion with Gatsby.